Shampoos have been in use for quite a long time and are generally used to keep hair clean. It helps remove dirt, excess oil, dandruff, etc.
Shampoos are generally prepared using chemicals. Shampoos use surfactants like sodium laureth sulfate and sodium lauryl sulfate along with co-surfactant like cocamidopropyl betaine. Water is added to this mixture to get a resultant sticky and thick liquid. Salt is added in to get the desired thickness. Shampoos also have fragrance and preservative as its ingredients. Various ingredients are added to a shampoo to enhance its qualities such as, creamy texture, easy to rinse off, good lather, pleasing fragrance, etc.
Shampoos have been a part of the Indian culture for since a very long time. Traditionally Indian shampoos use different herbs as their main ingredient. Aamla which is dried Indian gooseberry is one of the main ingredients of the ayurvedic or herbal shampoos. Other important ingredients used in the Indian shampoos include Reetha (Soapnuts), Khus, Egg, Lemon, Thyme, Chamomile tea, Glycerin, Henna, etc. Indian shampoos also make use of Shikakai, Neem, Methi seeds, Tulsi, Brahmi, etc. Various ingredients have different effects. For shiny hair one must use a shampoo which has egg extracts. Similarly to cure dandruff one must use a shampoo which has extracts of vinegar and peppermint.
Oily hair is quite difficult to manage as it cannot be styled. Inspite of being washed in the morning, by evening it starts looking sticky and greasy. Hair becomes oily when the sebum produced by the sebaceous glands is in excess. This makes the scalp oily and greasy and this oil is passed onto the hair, making it oily. Thus in order to treat oily hair, we need to treat the scalp.
Shampoos for oily hair are specially designed to treat the scalp by reducing the amount of sebum secreted by the sebaceous glands. When picking a shampoo for oily hair, you should make note of its colour. Some shampoos are transparent while some are white in colour. The colour white indicates that the shampoo contains an ingredient used for conditioning. Such a shampoo is not suitable for oily hair and you should go for the transparent one. One very effective ingredient for treating oily hair is astringent. It is found in herbal shampoos. Fruit based shampoos such as lemon and olive help in reducing the oiliness from the scalp. Other natural herbs which are effective in treating oily hair are tea tree oil, aloe, sage and chamomile.
When using shampoo, one should not wash hair with hot water as sebaceous glands become active when hot water is used and this increases the secretion of sebum. Therefore, you should always use lukewarm water to wash hair. When applying shampoo, make sure that it is massaged thoroughly so that it removes all the dirt and the excess oil. People with excessively oily hair should apply shampoo twice during a single wash. Some people also complain of a greasy scalp but have dry hair at the ends. They should use a shampoo for oily hair, however should use a conditioner for the ends.
There are a number of anti-dandruff shampoo brands available in India. These are available in local grocery shops, malls, as well as OTC products in chemist shops,
The commonly seen brands are:
- CLEAR from Hindustan Unilver which contains Nutrium 10 containing pro-vitamins, sunflower oil extract and minerals.
- Matrix BIOLAGE SCALP THERAPIE which contains extracts of kola nut and mint which acts on the dandruff but keeps the hair texture normal.
- NIZORAL from Johnson & Johnson which contains Ketoconazole as its active principle. This is an antifungal shampoo and treats dandruff due to fungal infection of scalp.
- CIPLA 8X anti-dandruff shampoo is a prescription shampoo recommended by dermatologists. It contains Zinc Pyrithione, Cicloprix and Aloe Vera extracts. It significantly reduces scalp itching.
- PANTENE PRO V Anti dandruff shampoo contains zinc pyrithione and a pro-vitamin complex.
- HIMALAYA anti-dandruff shampoo is a herbal formulation and contains tea tree oil, Holy basil extracts and soapberry which are natural antidandruff agents.
- Blossom Kochhar’s CHINA ROSE AROMA MAGIC is a herbal based anti-dandruff shampoo which is a very mild shampoo and recommended for frequent use.
- HEAD AND SHOULDERS antidandruff shampoo from Procter and Gamble contains zinc pyrithione as its active principle and is marketed as containing HydraZinc formula.
All the leading FMCG players have their own brands of anti-dandruff shampoos and share a healthy market in the Indian Beauty and wellness industry.